Year 10 Separate Sciences – Chemistry

Curriculum Intent

Our intent is to create a fun, engaging and relevant science curriculum, which equips students with the skills that they will need beyond school life. Students should be inquisitive and analytical in their approach. They should be able to debate relevant scientific information and work collaboratively with others. Our hope is that the skills practised, and experiences that students have in their science lessons will be a solid foundation for a lifelong interest in Science.

Why

Our curriculum is designed for students to learn about the products and practices of science in order to develop a sense of wonder about the material world and natural phenomena.

Through our curriculum, students learn scientific knowledge which becomes established through a range of practical work and scientific enquiry, they start to understand that scientific knowledge is open for revision in light of new evidence. By following our curriculum students will gain the ability to debate the significance of science in society and in their own lives. It will provide an excellent foundation for a range of careers which are crucial for economic, environmental and social development.

How

The structure of our curriculum allows for students to move along the path from novice to expert scientists. The important knowledge that students learn is well structured so that it becomes meaningful, flexible and easier to access. Teachers then scaffold and use models to facilitate students in solving complex and interesting scientific problems whilst considering a manageable cognitive load. As new knowledge is taught, it adds to existing knowledge to help to build the ‘big picture’ for students. The relationships between concepts are explicit and students feel that they are making progress as they start to know more, remember more and can do more in Science. The 4 main areas of knowledge that students study in Science are:

Methods
Apparatus and Techniques
Data Analysis
Developing Explanations from Evidence

Our curriculum interleaves the teaching of substantive and disciplinary knowledge so that students do not only know the scientific knowledge, they also have an understanding of the evidence for it. As students go through each key stage building substantive knowledge, they are able to reason scientifically with increasing sophistication and expertise. Substantive knowledge (knowledge of the products of science, such as concepts, laws, theories and models):this is referred to as scientific knowledge and conceptual understanding in the national curriculum disciplinary knowledge (knowledge of how scientific knowledge is generated and grows): this is specified in the ‘working scientifically’ sections of the national curriculum and it includes knowing how to carry out practical procedures We use regular assessment to ensure that where students may have gaps in knowledge, these are tackled so that all students can make progress through our science curriculum.

Autumn Term 1

Atoms and the Periodic Table

Grammar

The periodic table provides chemists with a structured organisation of the known chemical elements from which they can make sense of their physical and chemical properties. The historical development of the periodic table and models of atomic structure provide good examples of how scientific ideas and explanations develop over time as new evidence emerges. The arrangement of elements in the modern periodic table can be explained in terms of atomic structure which provides evidence for the model of a nuclear atom with electrons in energy levels.

Dialectic

Students will use their knowledge to predict the outcome of practical tasks, to analyse the results and report their findings. They will be encouraged to work collaboratively and come to scientific conclusions based on discussions with others.

Rhetoric

Knowledge will be assessed through direct questioning, group discussion, low stakes quizzes and through a longer investigation style task which will run over the course of a number of lessons.

In school...
How can I support this unit at home...

In this chapter, students will develop their understanding of atoms as fundamental chemical building blocks. They will see how to interpret chemical formulae and extend their KS3 knowledge of the law of the conservation of mass, leading them to balance chemical equations. It is important that they understand that when balancing an equation, the formula of the substance must not change. Students will also develop their understanding of the differences between compounds and mixtures, and how mixtures can be separated using techniques such as filtration, crystallisation, distillation, and chromatography. Students will learn about the development of the atomic model, providing ample opportunity to foster their Working scientifically skills – specifically around the development and use of models within science. Students will be able to describe the evidence that lead to each new stage in the development of the atomic model. Studying the development of the atomic model will lead into the model currently accepted for GCSE, and students will be able to use this to write and draw electronic structures up to element 20. In this chapter, students will learn about the development of the periodic table, including the work of Dalton, Newlands, and Mendeleev. Within this, students should have built upon their understanding of the development of scientific models from C1 Atomic structure. Students should understand how each stage in the development of the periodic table was facilitated by new evidence becoming available. They should also be able to identify the importance of an inherent pattern to the elements and how this guided Mendeleev’s thinking.

Students should also develop their understanding of electronic structures from C1 Atomic structure, and apply this to the arrangement of the periodic table and the chemical properties of Group 0, Group 1, and Group 7 elements. They should also be able to identify trends in properties and reactivity, and higher-tier students should be able to explain these in terms of the electronic structure of the elements.

Finally, students studying AQA GCSE chemistry were introduced to the properties and reactions of the transition elements. Students should be able to compare these with the elements of Group 1, identify that some transition elements can form many different ions, and recognise that they are used as catalysts.

and learn it together. Get them to make flash cards of each lesson and then test them on the topic. Start making mind map posters together on each topic and add to it after each lesson. Talk about what they are learning. "}” data-sheets-userformat=”{"2":7105,"3":{"1":0},"9":0,"10":0,"11":4,"12":0,"14":{"1":2,"2":0},"15":"Arial"}”>Practise drawing the electron shells for the first twenty elements together.

and learn it together. Get them to make flash cards of each lesson and then test them on the topic. Start making mind map posters together on each topic and add to it after each lesson. Talk about what they are learning. "}” data-sheets-userformat=”{"2":7105,"3":{"1":0},"9":0,"10":0,"11":4,"12":0,"14":{"1":2,"2":0},"15":"Arial"}”>Play the elements of the periodic table song and learn it together.

and learn it together. Get them to make flash cards of each lesson and then test them on the topic. Start making mind map posters together on each topic and add to it after each lesson. Talk about what they are learning. "}” data-sheets-userformat=”{"2":7105,"3":{"1":0},"9":0,"10":0,"11":4,"12":0,"14":{"1":2,"2":0},"15":"Arial"}”>Get them to make flash cards of each lesson and then test them on the topic.

and learn it together. Get them to make flash cards of each lesson and then test them on the topic. Start making mind map posters together on each topic and add to it after each lesson. Talk about what they are learning. "}” data-sheets-userformat=”{"2":7105,"3":{"1":0},"9":0,"10":0,"11":4,"12":0,"14":{"1":2,"2":0},"15":"Arial"}”>Start making mind map posters together on each topic and add to it after each lesson.

and learn it together. Get them to make flash cards of each lesson and then test them on the topic. Start making mind map posters together on each topic and add to it after each lesson. Talk about what they are learning. "}” data-sheets-userformat=”{"2":7105,"3":{"1":0},"9":0,"10":0,"11":4,"12":0,"14":{"1":2,"2":0},"15":"Arial"}”>Talk about what they are learning.

Autumn Term 2

Bonding and Structure Properties of Matter

Grammar

Chemists use theories of structure and bonding to explain the physical and chemical properties of materials. Analysis of structures shows that atoms can be arranged in a variety of ways, some of which are molecular while others are giant structures. Theories of bonding explain how atoms are held together in these structures. Scientists use this knowledge of structure and bonding to engineer new materials with desirable properties. The properties of these materials may offer new applications in a range of different technologies.

Dialectic

Students will use their knowledge to predict the outcome of practical tasks, to analyse the results and report their findings. They will be encouraged to work collaboratively and come to scientific conclusions based on discussions with others.

Rhetoric

Knowledge will be assessed through direct questioning, group discussion, low stakes quizzes and through a longer investigation style task which will run over the course of a number of lessons.

In school...
How can I support this unit at home...

In this chapter, students have developed their understanding of the states of matter from KS3. They have built upon their understanding of the particle model, using this to explain the energy transfers involved when substances change state.

Students have also learnt about the different types of bonding in substances. They should know that covalent bonding is the sharing of one or more pairs of electrons between non-metal atoms; ionic bonding involves a metal and non-metal atom, with the metal atom losing one or more electrons and the non-metal atom gaining one or more electron; and metallic bonding involves a delocalised sea of electrons surrounding the positive metal ions.

Students should have also learnt how the bonding of a substance affects its bulk properties. They should be able to describe the difference in bonding and properties of giant ionic structures, simple covalent molecules, and giant covalent structures (including different arrangements of carbon). Students should understand that covalent, metallic, and ionic bonding is strong, but that it is how the particles interact (intermolecular forces) that determines properties such as melting point, boiling point, and electrical conductivity.

Finally, students should have learnt about nanoparticles, their properties, and be able to explain how the surface area to volume ratio of nanoparticles is different to bulk material, and how this affects their uses.

Bonding and structure is about how things are put together and why that gives it the properties it has. Look at things around you, architecture, maps, structures and discuss why they chose to build in those shapes or materials. Get them to make flash cards of each lesson and then test them on the topic. Start making mind map posters together on each topic and add to it after each lesson. Talk about what they are learning.

Spring Term

Quantitative Chemistry

Grammar

Chemists use quantitative analysis to determine the formulae of compounds and the equations for reactions. Given this information, analysts can then use quantitative methods to determine the purity of chemical samples and to monitor the yield from chemical reactions. Chemical reactions can be classified in various ways. Identifying different types of chemical reaction allows chemists to make sense of how different chemicals react together, to establish patterns and to make predictions about the behaviour of other chemicals. Chemical equations provide a means of representing chemical reactions and are a key way for chemists to communicate chemical ideas.

Dialectic

Students will use their knowledge to predict the outcome of practical tasks, to analyse the results and report their findings. They will be encouraged to work collaboratively and come to scientific conclusions based on discussions with others.

Rhetoric

Knowledge will be assessed through direct questioning, group discussion, low stakes quizzes and through a longer investigation style task which will run over the course of a number of lessons.

In school...
How can I support this unit at home...

In this chapter, students will build upon their understanding of the structure of atoms and sub-atomic particles to understand relative atomic mass and relative formula mass. Students should be able to use relative atomic masses to calculate relative formula masses of compounds.

For higher-tier students, this was then related to the mole and Avogadro’s constant, and the relevant calculations introduced. Students should be able to use the equation number of moles = mass (g) / Ar and use moles to balance symbol equations and calculate reacting masses. Students studying AQA GCSE Chemistry have also learnt how to calculate the percentage yield and percentage atom economy of a reaction.

Students will apply their understanding of relative atomic mass, relative formula mass, and moles to concentrations. All students should be able to carry out calculations with concentrations in g/dm3, and students studying AQA GCSE Chemistry should also be confident with concentrations in mol/dm3 and with calculating moles in gases. These students will also carry out a titration as part of the required practical, with higher-tier students using their results to calculate the concentration of an unknown solution.

Get them to make flash cards of each lesson and then test them on the topic.

Start making mind map posters together on each topic and add to it after each lesson.

Talk about what they are learning.

Summer Term 1

Chemical Changes

Grammar

Understanding of chemical changes began when people began experimenting with chemical reactions in a systematic way and organizing their results logically. Knowing about these different chemical changes meant that scientists could begin to predict exactly what new substances would be formed and use this knowledge to develop a wide range of different materials and processes. It also helped biochemists to understand the complex reactions that take place in living organisms. The extraction of important resources from the earth makes use of the way that some elements and compounds react with each other and how easily they can be ‘pulled apart’.

Dialectic

Students will use their knowledge to predict the outcome of practical tasks, to analyse the results and report their findings. They will be encouraged to work collaboratively and come to scientific conclusions based on discussions with others.

Rhetoric

Knowledge will be assessed through direct questioning, group discussion, low stakes quizzes and through a longer investigation style task which will run over the course of a number of lessons.

In school...
How can I support this unit at home...

In this chapter, students will revise and develop their understanding of the reactivity series from KS3. They will study the reactions of the metals potassium, sodium, lithium, calcium, magnesium, zinc, iron, and copper with water and acids and should be able to recall and describe these reactions. They will apply their understanding of the reactivity series to displacement reactions and the extraction of metals, as well as introducing higher-tier students to the concepts of oxidation and reduction as the loss and gain of electrons respectively.

Students will also learn about salts and how they are prepared, including from metals and acids, acids and bases, and acids and carbonates. Students should be able to prepare a pure, dry sample of a salt from an insoluble metal oxide or carbonate as part of the required practical.

Students will learn about the pH scale. Higher-tier students should be able to explain how pH relates to H+(aq) ion concentration and the difference between strong and weak acids. Students are introduced to electrolysis. They will build upon their knowledge from Chapter C3 to explain why ionic compounds can undergo electrolysis when molten or in solution. They should also be able to explain the movement of particles during electrolysis, and the reactions that occur at the electrodes.

Students will then apply their understanding of electrolysis to the extraction of aluminium, and learn how to investigate the electrolysis of a solution. They should be able to predict the products of electrolysis and higher-tier students should be able to write balanced half equations.

Get them to make flash cards of each lesson and then test them on the topic.

Start making mind map posters together on each topic and add to it after each lesson.

Talk about what they are learning.

Electrolysis is a subject that always comes up in exams check out web sites like student rooms for past paper questions.

Watch videos on You Tube of these reactions together.

Summer Term 2

Energy Changes

Grammar

Energy changes are an important part of chemical reactions. The interaction of particles often involves transfers of energy due to the breaking and formation of bonds. Reactions in which energy is released to the surroundings are exothermic reactions, while those that take in thermal energy are endothermic. These interactions between particles can produce heating or cooling effects that are used in a range of everyday applications. Some interactions between ions in an electrolyte result in the production of electricity. Cells and batteries use these chemical reactions to provide electricity. Electricity can also be used to decompose ionic substances and is a useful means of producing elements that are too expensive to extract any other way.

Dialectic

Students will use their knowledge to predict the outcome of practical tasks, to analyse the results and report their findings. They will be encouraged to work collaboratively and come to scientific conclusions based on discussions with others.

Rhetoric

Knowledge will be assessed through direct questioning, group discussion, low stakes quizzes and through a longer investigation style task which will run over the course of a number of lessons.

In school...
How can I support this unit at home...

In this chapter, students will learn about the energy transfers that occur during chemical reactions. They should understand that an exothermic reaction transfers energy from the system to the surroundings, and an endothermic reaction transfers energy from the surroundings to the system. This is a key concept that students should be confident with. Students should be able to interpret experimental data to identify if a reaction is exothermic or endothermic and should be able to describe some uses of exothermic and endothermic reactions.

Students will further develop their qualitative understanding of the energy transfers in a reaction into a quantitative understanding. They should be confident with sketching and interpreting reaction profile diagrams and higher-tier students should be able to use bond energies to calculate overall energy changes for a reaction, identifying if it is exothermic or endothermic.

Students will also apply their understanding of the reactivity series and electrolysis to chemical cells and fuel cells.

Get them to make flash cards of each lesson and then test them on the topic. Start making mind map posters together on each topic and add to it after each lesson. Talk about what they are learning.

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